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域外 | 大數據時代的消費者保護

發布時間:2017/12/09 前沿資訊 瀏覽:1902

Consumer Protection In The Age Of Big?Data

Max N. HelvestonAssociate Professor of Law, DePaul University College of Law.
Washington University Law Review,Aug2016

 

大數據時代的消費者保護

The Big Data revolution is upon us. Technological advances in the degree to which third parties can record information about individuals, along with increases in the use of predictive analytics, are transforming the way that business is conducted in practically all sectors of the economy. This is particularly true in the insurance industry, where a firm’s ability to forecast the future is the central determinant of its profitability.

Scholars and the media have touted the potential benefits of Big Data analytics—it will enable businesses to tailor their practices to suit consumers’ preferences and increase the efficiency of their operations.

The Big Data movement’s potential negative impacts, however, have garnered significantly less attention. Commentators have focused on privacy and data security concerns as the primary problems associated with Big Data analytics.

There have been essentially no attempts to assess how these developments affect consumers’ other interests or, more broadly, the extent to which they justify additional regulation of markets.

This Article fills this gap. It identifies eight societal interests that will be affected by insurers’ uses of data—actuarial fairness, loss prevention, autonomy, non-discrimination, justice, utility maximization, privacy, and good faith—and describes how regulators could act to ensure that markets.

While laissez-faire regulatory approaches are superior for some types of insurance, more extensive state interventions are needed for products that are sold to individual consumers.

Where additional regulation is needed, community rating rules, authorization requirements for policy modifications, and claims handling standards are the mechanisms best suited to guaranteeing that insurance markets continue to advance public interests in the Big Data era.

摘譯

大數據革命已經來臨。對預測性分析方法使用的增加以及第三方用以記錄個人信息的技術進步,正在實踐中轉換所有經濟部門的商業行為。在保險行業中更是如此:保險公司預測未來的能力是其營利能力的核心因素。學者和媒體夸大了大數據分析的潛在利益——它能夠促使商業為適應消費者的偏好而調整其實踐,同時增加運行效率。然而大數據運動潛在的消極影響僅受到了極少關注。評論人大多將與大數據分析有關的隱私和數據安全作為其主要焦點。幾乎沒有人去嘗試評估這些發展會如何影響消費者的其他利益,或者更廣泛地評估這些發展證成對市場進行額外規制的限度。

本文旨在彌補這一缺憾。它確認了保險人使用數據會影響到的八種社會利益——精算公平性、損失防止、自治、不歧視、正義、效用最大化,隱私以及誠信。同時,本文還描述了規制者如何行動以確保該市場能夠使這些價值得到最優平衡。雖然自由放任的規制進路對某些類型的保險是最優的,但對某些銷售給個體消費者的產品而言,也需要更大范圍的國家干預。當然,額外的規制也是需要的。社群的評級規則、保單修改的授權要求,以及請求處理標準都是非常好的機制。在大數據的時代背景下,這些機制對于保障在保險市場中繼續促進公共利益是最合適的。

翻譯:王怡聰

吉林大學法學院?2016級民商法學碩士研究生

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